Journal of Precision Agriculture

Journal of Precision Agriculture

Journal of Precision Agriculture

Current Issue Volume No: 1 Issue No: 2

Short Communication Open Access Available online freely Peer Reviewed Citation Provisional

Study of The Impact of Erosion on The Biology of Vitis Vinifera L in The Region of Tlemcen

1Department of Agronomic and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences and Earth and Universe Sciences (SNV-STU), “Abou Bekr Belkaïd-Tlemcen” University, BP Tlemcen 13000, Algeria


This study made it possible to quantify the rate of eroded land in vineyard land, for three years, while showing the impact of erosion on the biology of Vitis vinifera L in the region of Tlemcen Algeria. eroded was used for this assessment. For good conservation and fight against erosive effects, for good yield, and good soil stability.

Author Contributions
Received 31 Dec 2022; Accepted 22 May 2024; Published 22 May 2024;

Academic Editor: Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam, Department of Crop Science (Agronomy), College of Agriculture, Bahri University Alkadaru Khartoum Sudan.

Checked for plagiarism: Yes

Review by: Single-blind

Copyright ©  2024 Bouguettaya Karim

Creative Commons License     This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Bouguettaya Karim (2024) Study of The Impact of Erosion on The Biology of Vitis Vinifera L in The Region of Tlemcen. Journal of Precision Agriculture - 1(2):1-17.

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The vine is one of the most cultivated fruit species in the world in terms of area and economic value. In 2010, the vineyard presents a wide distribution, on the five continents with an area of approximately 8 million ha. The majority of the world's 70 wine-growing areas are located in Europe (57.9%), the rest being distributed between Asia (21.3%), America (13.0%), Africa 68 (5.2%) and Oceania (2.7 %) (Aigrin 2003, OIV, 2010).

The world production of grapes in 2010 (direct consumption, drying) is estimated at approximately 12 million tons. About 18% (2.2 million tonnes) is sent to external markets. Exports are characterized by a strong geographical concentration. The biggest producing countries are Italy, China and the USA. The latter is also a major importer after Germany and the United Kingdom, which mainly import raisins (Aigrin, 2003; OIV, 2010). The Mediterranean countries come first in the importance of wine-growing areas with nearly 6.80million ha. In 2012, the surface of the vineyard increased to 7,528 76 million ha (Agouazi, 812013).

The wines of prestigious terroirs are part of a long tradition of exceptional products, carrying a mythical image, with high added value. Terroirs are sometimes legally protected within a territory circumscribed by designation of origin, but the designation of origin, which claims its existence, is a notion that is spatially and semantically distinct from those of terroir (Vaudour, 2003). .According to the reports carried out by the OIV, the International Organization of Vine and Wine, FranceAgriMer emphasizes that

• The world wine-growing area in 2015 amounted to 7.5 million hectares, down slightly by 28,000 ha compared to 2014

• World grape production reached 76 million tonnes in 2015 with an upward trend since 2000 (+17%).

• World wine production (excluding juice and must) is estimated at 94 million hectoliters in 2016, a decrease of 3% compared to 2015. This is one of the lowest global wine productions for 20 years. Adjustments to recent data may moderate this forecast slightly

• In 2016, Italy (48.8 mhl) confirmed its position as the world's leading producer, followed by France (41.9 mhl) and Spain (37.8 mhl)

• French wine production is estimated for 2016 at 41.9 million hectoliters, a decrease of 12% compared to 2015

Covering an area of 56,000 ha in 1998, the Algerian vineyard rose to 75,000 ha in 2017. But it only ranks 22nd worldwide (OVI, 2018). (Figure 1).

Figure 1.Viticulture in Algeria.
 Viticulture in Algeria.

Soil erosion by rain and runoff is a widespread phenomenon in the various Mediterranean countries (Boukheir et al. 2001). The relationships between vegetation, soil and water are largely disturbed there (Benchetrit, 1972). In Algeria, around 6 million hectares are exposed today to active erosion and on average 120 million sediments are carried away annually by the waters.

The climate, with sudden spatio-temporal variations in precipitation and runoff; the action of freezing (Touaibia, 2010) the evaporating power of the sirocco, is the first responsible; anthropogenic action accentuates this influence. In the current state, it is necessary to guard against erosion from the origin of this process rather than to fight a posteriori against its downstream consequences. Recent studies on vulnerability to climate change in the Mediterranean region indicate a trend towards increasing aridity which accelerates water erosion (Shabban et al, 1998). (Figure 2).

Figure 2.Climate map of the Mediterranean region (Source: Blue Plan, 2002).
 Climate map of the Mediterranean region (Source: Blue Plan, 2002).

Soil sensitivity to water erosion depends on the structure, texture and organic matter content (W.H. Wischmeir et al, 1971), factors that condition the permeability and cohesion of aggregates. J. Dumas (1965) also brings in stoniness. For J. Ryan (1982), the deeper the soil, the stronger its resistance against diffuse erosion, but this position can be disputed depending on local conditions.

The specificity of Mediterranean erosion is mainly due to its contrasting climate. At the beginning of summer, violent storms follow one another and quickly saturate the ground, which can cause more or less deep gullies and carry large quantities of soil over the degraded areas. In autumn, thunderstorms occur after a long period without rain, on parched soils that have undergone summer desiccation. (Figure 3)

Figure 3. Distribution of average precipitation in the Mediterranean basin (Blinda and 122Thivet, 2009).

In Algeria, 45% of Tellian areas are affected, i.e. 12 million hectares (chebbani, (1999). Faced with the worsening of the damage observed over the past twenty years, numerous studies on the processes and factors of water erosion have been committed

In general, the specific erosion varies between 2000 and 4000 t/km²year (Demmak, 1982). Algeria is therefore one of the countries most threatened in the world by erosion.

The intensity of water erosion varies from one area to another. The western part, where

erosion affects 47% of all land, is the most eroded region of the country; then come the regions of the Center (27%) and the East (26%) (Ministry of the Environment and Regional Planning, 2000).

From the climate point of view, Algeria, which is a country subject to the combined influence of sea, relief and altitude, has a Mediterranean-type climate characterized by

torrential rain; irregular both in space and in time. These rains are

clearly frequent in autumn when the plant cover is absent and the soil loosened by ploughing, sediment transport reaches these maximum values (Touibia, 2002; Achite et al, 2005; Arabi et al, 1989). These precipitations show a great monthly and especially annual variability. This variability is due to the existence of gradients (Djellouli, 1990).

The lithology of the region is mainly formed of more than 75% clays and silts.

Our main objective is to estimate the amount of eroded soil in the vineyards of four regions of the wilaya of Tlemcen and to assess the consequences on agricultural production. During the season, rains we witness the phenomenon of erosion which has repercussions on the soil as well as on the biology of the vine, such as deficiencies in the vital elements necessary for growth and proper development.

We cite the biology of the vine, to better understand this species and to better conserve it, for a good yield and good management in the future.

Many authors have cited it in their work, some of which will be listed below.

Biology of the vine

The vine is an angiosperm plant of the dicotyledonous class, a very ancient liana with sar-lying stems, climbing, cultivated from the Vitaceae family, attaching to various supports thanks to tendrils opposite the leaves (Planchon, 1887). This family includes 19 genera including the genus Vitis (Galet, 1993).

Archaeological excavations have revealed the presence of grapes (Pelt, 1994). The genus Vitis is divided into 2 subgenera, Euvitis and Muscadinia (Planchon, 1887).

The Muscadinia subgenus includes three diploid species (2n = 40 chromosomes), originating from Mexico and the United States. The Rotundifolia species is used in various breeding programs for its resistance or tolerance to many grapevine pathogens, such as downy mildew, powdery mildew and phylloxera (Huglin and Schneider, 1998).

The subgenus Euvitis includes about sixty diploid species (2n = 38 chromosomes) located in eastern Asia and North America (Huglin and Schneider, 1998).

The Asian vine includes about fifteen species which are resistant to diseases (Camps, 2008).

The American vine is made up of around twenty species which generally show good resistance to pathogenic agents, in particular phylloxera. They are therefore used as rootstocks for their resistance to diseases or crossed with Vitis vinifera L. to produce hybrids (Ber-geaul, 2010).

The European vine is made up of only one species, Vitis vinifera L. sativa (cultivated) and silvestris (wild). This species includes all the grape varieties grown in French vineyards, which include more than 6,000 varieties and have very different morphological or ampelographic characteristics (Huglin and Schneider, 1998).

This number is constantly changing due to the disappearance of certain grape varieties and the creation of new varieties (Camps, 2008).

The erosion hazard has a great impact on the biology of the vine, i.e. water and wind erosion, in our Tlemcen region, we notice in our four study stations a great erosion which manifests itself by mudslides and transport land to the bottom of the slope.

Materials and methods

Study area

The Wilaya of Tlemcen is located on the northwest coast of the country and has a coastline of 120 km. It is a border wilaya with Morocco, with an area of 9,017.69 km2.

The climate is semi-arid with cold winters. The number of rainy days extends from November to March with the presence of some violent and brutal showers which cause significant damage to the vineyards of the region. Average rainfall is 184mm. (Figure 4).

Figure 4.The different bioclimates in Algeria. Embeger's rainfall quotient is calculated with Stewart's formula which is more appropriate for Algeria (Stewart 1974).
 The different bioclimates in Algeria. Embeger's rainfall quotient is calculated with Stewart's formula which is more appropriate for Algeria (Stewart 1974).

The most wet season lasts for 8.4 months, from September 11 to May 24, with a daily wet chance of more than 12%. The month with the most days of precipitation in Tlemcen is February, with an average of 5.8 days having at least 1 millimeter of precipitation. (Figure 5).

Figure 5.Tlemcen rainfall diagram.
 Tlemcen rainfall diagram.


On this map, the Mediterranean climate zones are in red. They are not only located around the Mediterranean Sea. California, southern South Africa and southern Australia also enjoy a Mediterranean climate. © Historicair, Wikipedia, CC by-sa 3.0

The culture of the vine in the wilaya of Tlemcen currently covers a total area of about 4469 ha. This sector is made up of the table vineyard, which covers an area of 6,211 ha or 65.92%, and the vat vineyard, which covers 1,487 ha or 33.27% of the total area. The areas occupied by the raisin vines and the stock plants are very small and are around 16 and 20 ha respectively.

The study was conducted in four communes of Saf-saf and Ain-Youcef Abou-techefine and Hennaya. (Figure 6).

Figure 6.Geographical map of the Tlemcen region.
 Geographical map of the Tlemcen region.

Municipalities of the wilaya of Tlemcen (ONS codes): 01. Tlemcen • 02. Béni-Mester • 03. 232 AïnTallout • 04. Remchi • 05. El Fehoul • 06. Sabra • 07. Ghazaouet • 08. Souani 233 • 09.Djebala 219• 10.El Gor • 11.OuedLakhdar • 12.AïnFezza • 13.OuledMimoun 234• 14.Amieur • 15.AïnYousef 220• 16.Zenata • 17.BeniSnous • 18.Bab El Assa • 19.Dar 235Yaghmouracene • 20. Fellaoucene 221• 21.Azaïls • 22.SebaaChioukh • 23.TernyBeniHdiel 236• 24.Bensekrane • 25.AïnNehala 222• 26.Hennaya • 27.Maghnia • 28.HammamBoughrara 237• 29.Souahlia • 30.MSirdaFouahïnet 3 1.Aïnet 223 • 32.El Ari-cha • 33.Souk Tlata 238 • 34.SidiAbdelli • 35.Sebdou • 36. BeniOuarsous 224 • 37.SidiMedjahed • 38.BeniBoussaid • 39.Marsa Ben M'Hidi • 40.Nedroma • 41.SidiDjillali 240• 42.BeniBahdel • 43.El Bouihi • 44.Honaïne • 45.Tienet • 46.OuledRiyah • 47.Bouhlou 241• 48.BeniKhellad • 49.AïnGhoraba • 50.Chetouane • 51.Mansourah • 52. Beni Semiel • 53 242Aïn kebira

Viticulture in the communes of Tlemcen, have areas which are as follows:

Tlemcen 6 (Ha) with a production of 720 (Qx),B/Mester 4(Ha) production 345(Qx),A/Tellout 22977 (Ha) production 5040 (Qx),Remchi 2(Ha) production 300 (Qx) ,El 246Fehoul 371(Ha) production 32100(Qx),Sabra 363(Qx) production 10400 247(Qx),Ghazaouet 5(Ha) production 600(Qx),Souani 3 (Ha) production 248400(Qx),A/Nehala 335 (Ha) production 21600 (Qx),Hennaya 60 (Ha) production 2795200 (Qx) Maghnia 130 (Ha) production 19350 (Qx),S/Djilali 0(Ha) production 0 250(Qx),B/Bahedel 2330( Ha) production 0(Qx),Bouihi 0(Ha) production 0(Qx).(DSA,2017).


We observe that viticulture in Tlemcen is located in El-Fehoul with 32100 Qx over 371 253 Ha, Sabra with 18400 Qx over 361 Ha, Ain-Nehala 21600 Qx over 335 Ha and decreases to 254a Ghazaouet 600 237Qx, Souani 400 Qx and we find no at S/Djilali/Bahedel, Bouihi.

The shape of our plots is square and the areas of the latter are as follows: 10 ha for Ain Yousef and 56 Ha for Saf-saf, 50 ha for hennaya 10 ha for Abou-techefine.

This choice is justified by the importance of viticulture in the latter.

Very close, the 4 different stations have little in terms of topographical and climatic soil characteristics. They oscillate between a maximum of 677 m and 378 m in altitude. They belong to the plain zone at the foot of the Tlemcen mountains. The land is gently sloping, around 2 to 3%. The soil is of the ferralitic red type with a silty-clayey texture and a crumbly structure, which makes the soil not very permeable. Table 1.

Table 1. Characteristics of study sites.
Features Station Saf-saf Station Ain-Youcef Station Abou-techefine Station Hennaya
Latitude 3453’54’’N 3503’11’’N 3454’02’’N 3457’37’’N
Longitude 116’25’’W 122’30’’W 119’09’’W 123’15’’W 
Altitude 619m 399m 677m 378m
Common Chetouane Ain-Youssef Tlemcen Hennaya
slope 2% 2% 3% 3%
Type of soil Red soil ferralitic red soil Red soil ferralitic red soil Red soil ferralitic red soil Red soil ferralitic red soil
Texture Balanced Balanced Balanced Balanced
Water retention Poorly permeable soil Poorly permeable soil Poorly permeable soil Poorly permeable soil
Structure Silt dominance Silt dominance Silt dominance Silt dominance
Coarse fraction Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam Clay loam
weather Semi-arid to cool winter Semi-arid to cool winter Semi-arid to cool winter Semi-arid to cool winter
Annual mean precipitation (mm/year) 404.73mm/an 305.40mm/an 400mm/an 400mm/an
Tmean annual (C)Dry period 17.7C 5 à 6 months 17.7C6 à 7 mois 17.7C5 à 6 mois 17.7C6 à 7 mois

The climatic conditions are similar with a slight increase in the dry period in the stations of Ain-Youcef and Hennaya located on the lowest slopes. The presence of intervine vegetation is marked by weeds, particularly Malva sylvestrisL Sinapis arevensis L Hordeum murinum L. These are competitive plants for vineyards so the owner carries out weeding with the help of a small tractor in the interrows which are 2.50 meters away and between the vines and another is 1.25 meters. The vines are made up of several varieties, the most dominant being Valensi. The latter are very well maintained by the owner and give a good yield at harvest time.

Our study consists in quantifying the rate of eroded soils (t/ha) in the vines.

We have delimited a perimeter for each station, a square which contains 100 vines and each line contains 10 vines over a total area of 156.25m², after having made several outings.

With a graduated tape measure, the measurements are expressed in cm.

Diagnosis of erosion

Several methods exist to assess the intensity of erosion processes in the field. The fastest method is certainly the so-called “vine stock loosening” method (Brenot et al. 2007). This method consists of measuring the height between the graft bead and the soil surface to know if the position is a site of erosion or deposition (Figure 7). According to this method, the average erosion rate measured on a set of vineyard plots in the Hérault (Paroissien et al, 2010) is 10.5 tonnes per hectare and per year, i.e. an average loss of nearly 1mm of soil. per year. For comparison, below are some figures (per plot) (Cerdan et al, 2010):

Figure 7.illustration of the method of loosening the vines.
 illustration of the method of loosening the vines.

Average soil erosion in Europe: 1.2 t.ha-1.year-1

Average erosion of cultivated soils in Europe: 3.6 t.ha-1.year-1

Average erosion of Mediterranean vineyard soils: 8.6 t.ha-1.year-1

Case of a single plot with erosion at the top of the plot and deposit at the bottom of the plot

Nb 1 cubic meter of soil = 1.1t/ha eroded.

With the rule of three I found the amounts of eroded land for our four stations. Table 2

Table 2. Statistical values of our four stations
Station Date Average Max Average Min Volume of eroded land m 3 Quantities of eroded land t.ha
Saf-saf 11-12-2011 10.00 2.23 2.336 2.5773
05-03-2013 9.00 7.97 1.562 1.7182
17-04-2013 9.20 4.30 1.875 2.0625
Ain-Youcef 11-12-2011 10.12 8.00 3.118 3.4375
05-03-2013 8.30 7.27 3.5263 3.9216
17-04-2013 9.15 7.71 2.963 3.2648
Abou-Techefine 11-12-2011 11.40 6.35 2.463 2.7182
05-03-2013 11.30 5.04 2.809 3.0932
17-04-2013 10.00 3.23 2.654 2.9216
Hennaya 11-12-2011 7.45 5.54 2.654 2.9216
05-03-2013 11.00 2.80 1.872 2.0625
17-04-2014 10.45 0.30 2.618 2.8898

Quantities of eroded soil for the four stations: compacted silty-clayey structure Table 3

Table 3. Statistical values of the four stations
stations Medium Standard deviation Variance
Saf-saf 1.92 0.28 0.07
Ain-Youcef 2.91 0.10 0.01
Abou-techefine 2.34 0.98 0.96
Hennaya 2.07 0.13 0.01

Mathematical formulas

Medium :

Standard deviation:


The standard deviations for our four stations surround themselves around the mean are very little dis-persed, for the volume as well as for the quantity of eroded soil, the latter are close to 0.

It is a homogeneous series.

To confirm the result we apply an Anova or a test-tuckey, for the 3 years 2011, 2013, 2014.


The above command gives the analysis of variance for the measurements during the year 2011 by checking the equality of the means for the four stations: Table 4

Table 4. Statistical values of the four stations
stations Medium Standard deviation Variance
Saf-saf 2.11 0.12 0.01
Ain-Youcef 3.53 0.06 0.003
Abou-Techefine 2.89 0.02 0.0004
Hennaya 2.62 0.15 0.022


Its R output is as follows:

Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)

sta 3 4926 1642 11.81 1.99e-07 ***

Residuals 396 55039 139


Meaning. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

According to the p-value (in red), there is a significant difference between the means of the measurements in the four stations.

A Tuckey post-hoc test allows us to perform all the two-by-two comparisons, just use the following command:


Running it on R gives

Tukey multiple comparisons of means

95% family-wise confidence level

Fit: aov(formula = mes11 ~ sta)


diff lwr upr p adj

ainyoucef-abutachefin 1.1522 -3.149266 5.453666 0.9004833

henaya-abutachefin 2.4502 -1.851266 6.751666 0.4569150

safsaf-abutachefin -6.6528 -10.954266 -2.351334 0.0004553

henaya-ainyoucef 1.2980 -3.003466 5.599466 0.8641691

safsaf-ainyoucef -7.8050 -12.106466 -3.503534 0.0000232

safsaf-henaya -9.1030 -13.404466 -4.801534 0.0000005

According to the p-values, there is no significant difference between the stations ain youcef, abutachefine and hennaya (the p-value>0.05 in green). However, safsaf differs from the other three stations (the p-values<0.05 in red) with regard to the measured variable (the 428quantity of eroded soil!).

The above command gives the analysis of variance for measurements during the year 2013


Its R output is as follows:

Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)

sta 3 107 35.71 0.438 0.726

Residuals 396 32325 81.63

According to the p-value (in red), there is no significant difference between the means of the measurements in the four stations.

A post-hoc Tuckey test is not necessary

The above command gives the analysis of variance for the measurements during the year 2014 by checking the equality of the means for the four stations:


Its R output is as follows:

Df Sum Mean Sq F value Pr(>F)

sta 3 2103 700.9 8.868 1.06e-05 ***

Residuals 396 31302 79.0


Meaning. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

According to the p-value (in red), there is a significant difference between the means of the measurements in the four stations.

A Tuckey post-hoc test allows us to perform all the two-by-two comparisons, just use the following command:


Running it on R gives

Tukey multiple comparisons of means

95% family-wise confidence level

Fit: aov(formula = mes14 ~ sta)


diff lwr upr p adj

ainyoucef-abutachefin 4.3435 1.0996148 7.587385 0.0034079

henaya-abutachefin -1.3955 -4.6393852 1.848385 0.6836558

safsaf-abutachefin 3.0195 -0.2243852 6.263385 0.0784272

henaya-ainyoucef -5.7390 -8.9828852 -2.495115 0.0000395

safsaf-ainyoucef -1.3240 -4.5678852 1.919885 0.7182507

safsaf-henaya 4.4150 1.1711148 7.658885 0.0027876

According to the p-values, there is no significant difference between the hennaya and abutachefine stations and between ainyoucef and safsaf (the p-value>0.05 in green). However henaya differs from safsaf and ainyoucef (the p-values<0.05 in red). We conclude that with respect to the measured variable (the amount of soil eroded!).

For the variances of our four stations they are almost identical except for the variances of the quantities of eroded land for our last three stations which are very close to zero. This means that all the observations are equal to the mean, which implies that it there is no variation of these. On the other hand, the other variances are high the greater the dispersion of the observations; it is very sensitive to extreme values.


Agricultural land in semi-arid areas of Africa is currently suffering from an environmental crisis, of which water erosion is the most spectacular manifestation (Hamza, 1988; Kouri et al.1993; Tribak, 1997) .

Erosion phenomena

Our vineyards in our four stations are planted on more or less gentle slopes, the vines perfectly cover the ground, especially in the case of inter rows (1 m to 1.20 m) and protect against the impact of raindrops and trickle-down effects.

The behavior of the soils is the same according to the granulometric classes. The textures encountered in the superficial horizons are said to be light, these aggregates are structured. In the case of soils on black earth, the lack of cohesion of the aggregates leads them to break up into thin strips then flakes and fine elements. This phenomenon was observed on the plots of La Sausse and Serre du Moulin as well as in the nearby region of Buëch (J.-C. Olivry and J. Hoorelbeck, 1990). In the case of soils on erosion glacis, the aggregates agglomerate in the form of large compact clods.

The permeability decreases under the effect of compaction by the wheels of agricultural machinery, which leads to the destruction of the clods and the closure of the porosity. Phytosanitary treatments and fertilization applied to the cover multiply the passages (up to seven in one year for these types of operations alone). On muck soils, the heads of gullies appear from the upstream rows of a plot, due to the textural properties of the soil which promote surface waterproofing.

Two main types of erosion can be distinguished in the inter rows of perennial crops. They correspond to types of tillage.

Erosion in vineyards by concentrated runoff and erosion in vineyards by stripping loosened soil.

The plant cover thus formed is interposed between the rain and the ground. By improving surface roughness and water infiltration, increasing the organic matter content, high water retention capacity (C. Litzler, 1988), grassing delays the onset of runoff and inhibits it for low intensity precipitation. By reducing the splash effect and improving the holding of the soil (particularly by the root hairs), grassing limits the loss of soil.


Erosion is a major problem that affects Mediterranean soils in general and vineyard soils in particular. This study was conducted to quantify the rate of eroded land in the region of Tlemcen Algeria. Following brutal rains we are witnessing a strong erosion, resulting in a transport of land from the top of the slope to the bottom of the slope. the slope, hence an impact on the Vitis vinifera L vine and its biology. The collar method allowed us to estimate and quantify the transported soil. Grassing, between the row spacing, remains the best way to effectively fight against erosion and good conservation of vineyard soils. In the future, it would be a good idea to combine weeding with light tillage in order to better control resistant plants, to comply with new regulations and restrictions on the use of active ingredients. A new hope emerges thanks to grass cover controlled at a non-competitive level for the vine (J.P. Rozier, 1992): it is possible to design the culture of the vine while protecting the environment, preserving the structure and the fertility soils and most effectively combating erosion


I would like to thank all those who have contributed to the production of this article, and to the entire Tlemcen agronomy research laboratory team, I thank them very much. Mr Azzi rachid vice-dean, and Mrs Abdellaoui Karima, Professor and researcher at the University of Agronomy Tlemcen


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